British personalities connected with British foreign policy towards the Arab Middle East, 1914–19:

 

ALLENBY OF MEGIDDO, Edmund Henry Hyman, Viscount (1861–1936)

Joins the army, 1882; colonel, 1902; major-general, 1909; Army Corps commander, BEF, 1914–17; lieutenant general, 1916; general officer commanding-in-chief, EEF, 1917–19; general, 1917; field-marshal, 1919; high commissioner Egypt, 1919–25.

 

AMERY, Leopold Charles Maurice Stennet (1873–1955)

Fellow of All Souls, 1897; MP for Birmingham South, 1911–45; joins the Army; intelligence officer in the Balkans and Eastern Mediterranean, 1915–16; assistant secretary, War Cabinet, 1917–18; parliamentary under-secretary, Colonial Office, 1919–21.

 

ASQUITH, Herbert Henry (1852–1928)

Balliol; MP for East Fife, 1886–1918; home secretary,1892–5; Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1905–8; prime minister, 1908–16.

 

BALFOUR, Arthur James (1848–1930)

Trinity College, Cambridge; MP for Hertford, 1874–85, East Manchester, 1885–1906, City of London, 1907–22; chief secretary for Ireland, 1887–91; first lord of the Treasury, 1891–2, 1895–1902; prime minister, 1902–5; firstlord of the Admiralty, 1915–16; foreign secretary, 1916–19; lord president of the Council, 1919–22.

 

BELL, Gertrude Margaret Lowthian (1868–1926)

Member of Arab Bureau, 1915; oriental secretary to the Civil Commissioner Iraq, 1917–20.

 

BERTIE OF THAME, Francis Leveson, Viscount (1844−1919)

Clerk in the Foreign Office, 1863; assistant clerk, 1882; senior clerk, 1889; assistant under-secretary, 1894; Ambassador at Rome, 1903–5; ambassador at Paris, 1905–18.

 

BUCHANAN, Sir George William (1854–1924)

Attaché, 1875; Secretary of Embassy, 1899; agent and consul-general in Bulgaria, 1903; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the Queen of the Netherlands, 1909; ambassador at St Petersburg, 1910–17; ambassador at Rome, 1919–21.

 

CALLWELL, Sir Charles Edward (1859–1928)

Joins the army, 1878; colonel, 1904; retired, 1909; military correspondent Morning Post, 1909–14; temp. Major-General and director of military operations, 1914–15.

 

 CECIL, Lord Edgar Algernon Robert (1864–1958)

University College, Oxford; MP for East Marylebone, 1906–10, Hitchin Division of Hertfordshire, 1911–23; parliamentary under-secretary for foreign affairs, 1915–18; minister of blockade, 1916–18; assistant foreign secretary, 1918; member British delegation at the peace conference, 1919.

 

CHAMBERLAIN, Austen (1863–1937)

Trinity College, Cambridge; MP for East Worcestershire,1892–1937; Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1903–5; secretary of state for India, 1915–17; Member of the War Cabinet, 1918; Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1919–21.

 

CHEETHAM, Sir Milne (1869–1938)

Attaché, 1893; first secretary Cairo, 1910; Counselor of the Embassy, 1911; chargé d’affaires, June–December,1914; acting high commissioner, December 1914–January 1915.

 

CLAYTON, Sir Gilbert Falkingham (1875–1929)

Woolwich; joins the army, 1895; Egyptian Army, 1898; private secretary to Sir Reginald Wingate, 1908–10; Sudan agent and director of intelligence, Egyptian army,1913–17; head military intelligence at British Headquarters Egypt, 1914–17; colonel, 1914; brigadier-general, 1916; chief political officer, EEF, 1917–19; advisor to the Egyptian Ministry of the Interior, 1919–22.

 

CLERK, Sir George Russell (1874–1951)

New College, Oxford; clerk in the Foreign Office, 1898; assistant clerk, 1907; senior clerk, 1913.

 

CORNWALLIS, Kinahan (1883–1959)

Temp. Major and director Arab Bureau, 1916–20; assistant political officer, EEF, 1919.

 

COX, Sir Percy Zachariah (1864–1937)

Sandhurst; joins the Indian army, 1884; British agent and consul in Muscat, 1899–1904; political resident and consul-general at Bushire, 1904–13; Secretary, Foreign Department, to the governor-general in Council, 1913–14; chief political officer, Force ‘D’ and MEF, 1914–17; civil commissioner Mesopotamia, 1917–18; minister to Persia, 1918–20.

 

CREWE, Robert Offley Ashburton, Marquess of (1858–1945)

Trinity College, Cambridge; lord president of the Council, 1905–8, 1915–16; lord privy seal and secretary of state for the Colonies, 1908–10; secretary of state for India, 1910–15; lord privy seal, 1912–15; President of the Board of Education, 1916.

 

CROWE, Sir Eyre (1864–1925)

Clerk in the Foreign Office, 1885; assistant clerk, 1900; senior clerk, 1906; assistant under-secretary, 1912; member British delegation at the peace conference, 1919–20.

 

CURZON OF KEDLESTON, George Nathaniel, Earl (1859–1925)

Balliol; Fellow of All Souls, 1883; MP for Southport, 1886–98; parliamentary under-secretary for India, 1891–2; parliamentary under-secretary for Foreign Affairs,1895–8; governor-general and viceroy of India, 1898–1905; lord privy seal, 1915–16; Member of the War Cabinet and lord president of the Council, 1916–19; acting foreign secretary, 1919; foreign secretary, 1919–24.

 

DERBY, Edward Stanley, 17th Earl of (1865–1948)

Postmaster-general, 1903–5; parliamentary undersecretary for War, 1916; secretary of state for War, 1916–18; ambassador at Paris, 1918–20.

 

DRUMMOND, Sir James Eric (1876–1951)

Clerk in the Foreign Office, 1900; private secretary to parliamentary under-secretary for Foreign Affairs, 1906–10; précis-writer to Sir Edward Grey, 1910–11; private secretary to H.H. Asquith, 1912–15; private secretary to Sir E. Grey, 1915–16; private secretary to A.J. Balfour, 1916–19.

 

FITZMAURICE, Gerald Henry (1865–1939)

Student interpreter, 1888; 3rd dragoman Constantinople, 1897; chief dragoman, 1907.

 

FORBES ADAM, Eric Graham (1888–1925)

Clerk in the Foreign Office, 1913; member British delegation at the peace conference, 1919.

 

GRAHAM, Sir Ronald William (1870–1949)

Attaché, 1892; clerk in the Foreign Office, 1903–7; counselor of Embassy, 1907; advisor to the Egyptian Ministry of the Interior, 1910−16; assistant under-secretary, 1916–19; acting permanent under-secretary, 1919; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at the Hague,1919–21.

 

GREY OF FALLODON, Edward, Viscount (1862–1933)

Balliol; MP for North Berwick, 1885–1916; parliamentary under-secretary for Foreign Affairs, 1892–5; foreign secretary, 1905–16; ambassador to Washington, 1919–20.

 

HANKEY, Sir Maurice Pascal Alers (1877–1963)

Woolwich; Royal Marine Artillery, 1895; Secretary to the Committee of Imperial Defence, 1912–38; secretary of the War Cabinet, 1916–18; British secretary to the peace conference, 1919, Secretary of the Cabinet, 1919–38.

 

HARDINGE OF PENSHURST, Charles, Baron (1858–1944)

Trinity College, Cambridge; attaché, 1880; Secretary of Embassy, 1898; assistant under-secretary, 1903–4; ambassador at St Petersburg, 1904–6; permanent under-secretary, 1906–10; governor-general and viceroy of India, 1910–16; permanent under-secretary; 1916–20; organising ambassador British delegation at the peace conference, 1919.

 

HIRTZEL, Sir Arthur (1870–1937)

Trinity College, Oxford; Fellow of Brasenose College, 1895–1902; enters India Office, 1894; private secretary to secretary of state, 1903–9; Secretary, Political Department, India Office, 1909–17; assistant under-secretary,1917–21; Member British delegation at the peace conference, 1919.

 

HOGARTH, David George (1862–1927)

Member of Arab Bureau, 1916–18.

 

HOLDERNESS, Sir Thomas William (1849–1924)

University College, Oxford; Indian Civil Service, 1872; Secretary, Revenue, and Agricultural Department, to the governor-general in Council, 1898–1901; Secretary, Revenue Statistics, and Commerce, India Office, 1901–12; permanent under-secretary, 1912–19.

 

KERR, Philip (1882–1940)

Private secretary to D. Lloyd George, 1916–21.

 

KIDSTON, George Jardine (1873–1954)

Attaché, 1897; clerk in the Foreign Office, 1916.

 

KITCHENER OF KHARTOUM, Herbert Horatio, Earl (1850–1916) Joins the Army, 1871; colonel, 1888; sirdar Egyptian army, 1892–9; major-general, 1896; chief of staff South Africa,

1900–2; general, 1902; commander-in-chief, India, 1902–9; field-marshal, 1909; governor Malta, 1910–11; British agent and consul-general Egypt, 1911–14; secretary of state for War, 1914–16.

LAWRENCE, Thomas Edward (1888–1935)

Jesus College, Oxford; joins the army, 1914; member of Arab Bureau, 1916; staff officer, HEF, 1917; staff officer, EEF, 1918.

 

LLOYD, George Ambrose (1879–1941)

Honorary attaché at Constantinople, 1905–6; MP for West Staffordshire, 1910–18; captain Warwickshire Yeomanry; governor, Bombay, 1918–23.

LLOYD GEORGE, David (1863–1945)

MP for Caernarvon Burroughs, 1890–1945; Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1908–15; Minister of Munitions, 1915–16; secretary of state for War, 1916; prime minister, 1916–22.

 

MACDONOGH, Sir George Mark Watson (1865–1942)

Joins the army, 1884; colonel, 1912; General Staff GHQ, BEF, 1914–16; major-general, 1916; director of military intelligence, 1916–18; adjutant-general to the forces, 1918–22; lieutenant-general, 1919.

 

MALLET, Sir Louis du Pan (1866–1936)

Clerk in the Foreign Office, 1888; précis-writer to the Marquess of Lansdowne, 1903–5; private secretary to Sir Edward Grey, 1905–7; assistant under-secretary, 1907; Ambassador at Constantinople, 1913–14; assistant under-secretary, 1918; member British delegation at the peace conference, 1919.

 

MAURICE, Sir Frederick Barton (1871–1951)

Joins the army, 1892; colonel, 1915; director of military operations, 1915–18; major-general, 1916.

 

MAXWELL, Sir John Grenfell (1859–1929)

Sandhurst; joins the army, 1879; colonel, 1898; major-general, 1906; general officer commanding-in-chief, Egypt, 1908–12 and 1914–16; lieutenant-general, 1912; commander-in-chief, Ireland, 1916; commander-in-chief, Northern Command, 1916–19; general, 1919.

 

MCMAHON, Sir Arthur Henry (1862–1949)

Joins the army, 1882; Indian Army, 1885; Indian Political Department, 1890; Secretary, Foreign Department, to the governor-general in Council, 1911–14; high commissioner, Egypt, 1914–16.

 

MEINERTZHAGEN, Richard (1878–1967)

Joins the army, 1899; Intelligence Section, EEF, 1917–18; colonel, 1918; War Office, 1918–19; Member British delegation at the peace conference, 1919; chief political officer, Syria and Palestine, 1919–20.

 

MILNER OF ST JAMES’S AND CAPE TOWN, Lord Alfred (1854–1925)

Balliol; high commissioner, South Africa, 1897–1905; Member of the War Cabinet, 1916–18; secretary of state for War, 1918; secretary of state for the Colonies, 1919–21.

 

MONTAGU, Edwin Samuel (1879–1924)

Trinity College, Cambridge; MP for Chesterton Division, Cambridgeshire, 1906–22; parliamentary under-secretary for India, 1910–14; financial secretary to the Treasury, 1914–15; Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 1915; Minister of Munitions, 1916; secretary of state for India, 1917–22.

 

MURRAY, Sir Archibald James (1860–1945)

Joins the army, 1879; colonel, 1903; Director of Military Training, 1907–12; major-general, 1910; Inspector of Infantry, 1912–14; chief of staff, BEF, 1914; lieutenant-general, 1915; deputy chief and chief of the Imperial General Staff, 1915; general officer commanding-in-chief, EEF, 1916–17; general officer commanding-in-chief, Aldershot, 1917–19.

 

NEWCOMBE, Stewart Francis (1878–1956)

Joins the army, 1898; Egyptian Army, 1901–11; general staff, 1914–15; staff officer, HEF, 1917.

 

NICOLSON, Sir Arthur (1849–1928)

Brasenose College, Oxford; clerk in the Foreign Office, 1870; Secretary of Embassy, 1893; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the Sultan of Morocco,

1895–1905; ambassador at Madrid, 1905–6; ambassador at St Petersburg, 1906–10; permanent under-secretary, 1910–16.

 

NICOLSON, Harold George (1886–1968)

Attaché, 1909; clerk in the Foreign Office, 1914.

 

OLIPHANT, Lancelot (1881–1956) Clerk in the Foreign Office, 1903; assistant clerk, 1916.

 

ORMSBY GORE, William George Arthur (1885–1964) New College; MP for Denby District, 1910–18, and Stafford, 1918–38; joins the army, 1914; parliamentary secretary to Lord Milner and assistant secretary, War Cabinet, 1917–18.

 

PETERSON, Maurice Drummond (1889–1952)

Clerk in the Foreign Office, 1913.

 

ROBERTSON, Sir William Robert (1859–1933)

Joins the army, 1877; colonel, 1903; major-general, 1910; Director of Military Training, 1913–14; quarter-master-general, 1914–15; chief of staff, BEF, 1915; lieutenant-general, 1915; Chief of the Imperial General Staff, 1915–18; general, 1916; commander-in-chief, Great Britain, 1918.

 

SAMUEL, Herbert Louis (1870–1963)

Balliol; MP for Cleveland Division, North Riding, Yorkshire, 1902–18; parliamentary under-secretary Home Office, 1905–9; Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster,1909–10; postmaster-general, 1910–14; President of the Local Government Board, 1914–15; postmaster-general,1915; Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 1915; post-master-general, 1915–16; home secretary, 1916.

 

SHUCKBURGH, John Evelyn (1877–1953)

King’s College; junior clerk India Office, 1900; senior clerk, Political Department, India Office, 1906; Assistant Secretary, Political Department, India Office, 1912; Secretary, Political Department, India Office, 1917.

 

SMUTS, Jan Christiaan (1870–1950)

General officer commanding-in-chief, East Africa, 1916; member of the War Cabinet, 1917–18, member British delegation at the peace conference, 1919.

 

STORRS, Ronald (1881–1955)

Pembroke College; oriental secretary to the British agent and consul-general, Egypt, 1908; political officer, EEF, 1917; governor, Jerusalem, 1917–26.

 

SYKES, Sir Tatton Benvenuto Mark, 6th Baronet (1879–1919)

Jesus College; joins the army, 1899; retires, 1902; honorary attaché at Constantinople, 1905–6; lieut.-colonel Territorial Reserve Force, 1910; MP for Central Hull, 1911–19; assistant secretary, War Cabinet, 1916–18; acting adviser on Arabian and Palestine Affairs, Foreign Office, 1918.

 

SYMES, George Stewart (1882–1962)

Sandhurst; joins the army, 1900; Egyptian Army, 1906; private secretary to Sir Reginald Wingate, 1912–16; attached to Staff of High Commissioner, Egypt, 1917–19.

 

THWAITES, Sir William (1868–1947)

Joins the army, 1887; colonel, 1916; major-general, 1918; director of military intelligence, 1918–22.

 

TILLEY, John Anthony Cecil (1869–1952)

King’s College, Cambridge; clerk Foreign Office, 1893; senior clerk, 1910; chief clerk, 1913; acting assistant under-secretary, 1919.

 

TOYNBEE, Arnold Joseph (1889–1975)

Political Intelligence Department, Foreign Office, 1918; member British delegation at the peace conference, 1919.

 

TYRRELL, Sir William George (1866–1947)

Clerk in the Foreign Office, 1889; private secretary to Sir T.H. Sanderson, 1896–1904; assistant clerk, 1903; précis-writer to Sir Edward Grey, 1905–7; senior clerk, 1907;

private secretary to Sir Edward Grey, 1907–15; assistant under-secretary, 1918; member British delegation at the peace conference, 1919.

 

VANSITTART, Robert Gilbert (1881–1957)

Attaché, 1902; second secretary, 1908; assistant clerk, 1914; member British delegation at the peace conference, 1919.

 

WEAKLEY, Ernest (1861–1923)

Appointed commercial attaché European and Asiatic Turkey and Bulgaria, 1897; Contraband Department, 1914.

 

WEMYSS, Sir Rosslyn Erskine (1864–1933)

Joins the Navy, 1877; captain, 1901; vice-admiral, 1916; commander-in-chief, East Indies and Egypt Station, 1916–17; deputy first sea lord, 1917; first sea lord, 1917–19; Admiral of the Fleet, 1919.

 

WILSON, Arnold Talbot (1884–1940)

Sandhurst; joins the Indian army, 1903; political department, 1909; deputy chief political officer, Force ‘D’ and MEF, 1915–17; deputy civil commissioner, Mesopotamia, 1917; acting civil commissioner, Mesopotamia, 1918–20.

 

WILSON, Cyril Edward (1873–1938)

Sandhurst; joins the army, 1893; Egyptian Army, 1898–9; South Africa, 1900–2; rejoins Egyptian army, 1902; Sudan government, 1902; governor, Sennar, 1902; governor, Khartoum, 1909; governor, Red Sea Province,1913–22; HM representative at Jedda, 1916–19.

 

WILSON, Sir Henry Hughes (1864–1922)

Joins the army, 1884; colonel, 1904; director of military operations, 1910–14; major-general, 1913; commander 4th Army Corps, 1915–17; Head of Military Mission to Russia, 1917; lieutenant-general, 1917; chief of British Mission to French Army, 1917; member Supreme War Council, 1917–18; general, 1918; Chief of the Imperial General Staff, 1918–22; field-marshal, 1919.

 

WINGATE, Sir Francis Reginald (1861–1953) Woolwich; joins the army, 1880; Egyptian Army, 1883; director of military intelligence, Egyptian army, 1889; colonel, 1899; Sirdar and governor-general Sudan, 1899–1916; major-general, 1903; lieutenant-general, 1908; general, 1913; general officer commanding, HEF, 1916–19; high commissioner Egypt, 1917–19.

 

 

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