Initially there were two cultures with the skill of writing, next door to each other in the upper reaches of the Persian Gulf: Sumer, the Biblical 'land of Shin`ar' at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and Elam, across the marshes to the east, between the Zagros mountains and the sea. Each was not so much a state as a gathering of towns and villages of people speaking a common language. The origins of Sumerian are quite unknown; Elamite, however, appears to be related to Dravidian, and also linked with Brahui, still spoken by over 2 million in the west of Pakistan, and many more languages spoken in central and southern India.

Ancient Globalization

 

In the Beginning

The combined impact of orbital change and amplifying mechanisms has been the see-sawing of climate from glacial to interglacial and back every 100,000 years, often with an extraordinarily rapid switch from one state to another. The global warming that brought the ice age to its close created localities of abundant resource which people claimed as their own and were prepared to fight for, such as in the Nile valley at 14,000 Bc, northern Australia at 6000 Bc and southern Scandinavia at 5000 BC. Click to enter:


Twenty thousand years B.C., from left to right excavations at: Nile valley (1980), Kenia (1993) Sea of Galilee (1999)

Genes or Behavior?

If we have reached a point at which we can live within Earth's carrying capacity, we can eliminate warfare in the same way we can eliminate infectious disease: not perfectly, not immediately, but slowly and surely. Climatic desiccation centered around 5000 years BP played a major role in the emergence of  civilizations. The rise of Dynastic civilization in Egypt coincided with the onset of widespread Saharan desiccation, and  the northward expansion. And while Mesopotamia was experiencing fragmentation at a time of unity in early Dynastic Egypt, complex urban societies emerge in other parts of the world in the early fifth millennium, for example in the Indus Valley region and the Supe Valley of Peru. But there is more. The Archeology of Worldwide War and Peace.

They Built the First Temples?

The Earliest States

The following section grew out of the observation that neo-evolutionists erroneously restricted comparisons to finding representative of stages of organizations (e.g. of chiefdoms), and archaeologists justified their choice of comparisons by linking these explicitly to the analysis of data within a structure of archaeological theory. And although it is important to include comparisons of developmental sequences, such investigations must include appraisals of what social changes occurred, and most importantly understand the past on its own terms, insofar as this can be imagined:


Truth In History: Inventing Archeology

Archaeology has often been used in different parts of the world to support nationalist, colonialist, and imperialist claims, with horrifying results. There does not seem to be a way to exclude religion and politics from archaeology, which is after all a social science and hence political and partial. We will start with a particularly  example, the Middle East and  the Holy Land, where Archaeology  has been used to serve modern political goals, including laying claims to the land and denying the claims and narratives of the other side.

Case Study: Archeology of the Middle East Today

Levantine Neandertals and the Skhul/Qafzeh humans, Figurines in the Middle East, Mesopotamia, and the Bible as narrative. Imperial Ideas, Critical Evaluation of Hypotheses, Concepts of Time, Mounts, Texts and Representations.

Nationalism: Ancient Egypt, Judea, Armenia, Japan?
When did the nation first become a political factor?:

Although we know that ‘King Arthur’ was the fictional creation of an overimaginative Welsh patriot who, frustrated by the absence of a good history of his people, took a few disjointed Welsh legends and turned them into a coherent and majestic narrative covering almost 2000 years and the reigns of 99 Celtic kings (The Truth About History, 2003, p. 302), the full story has never been told until now:

Click to enter:

Fringe Archeology in Bosnia.

Japan-Atlantis Legend Revisited. Fringe Archeology Update

For more Fringe Archeology  see below.

Recently The New York Times became the latest (although becoming more skeptical now) major newsmedia, to cover the pyramids in Bosnia.The genius of Mr.Osmanagic's discovery may turn out to be that it is difficult to disprove without a large and costly excavation, allowing an enduring and alluring mythology to grow up around the hill. For this and other recent 'Archeological Fantasies' continue:

Media reports reflect the ebb and flow of the Bosnia pyramid story. *May 17* Reuters ( left): an Egyptian geologist says it's a primitive pyramid.* June 9* (right): Anthony Harding drops by and leaves unimpressed, telling the Associated Press that “ there's no evidence it's an archaeological site. UNESCO director-general Koichiro Matsuura however promised to send a group of UNESCO archaeological experts to investigate the "find."

The Mother of all Theocratic States: Lemuria
The Secret Doctrine, the foundational narrative  for modern occultism, claimed to be a commentary on the "Archaic Records" contained in the Stanzas of Dzyan. As occult place making gathers momentum over the course of the century, other such fantasies of Lemuria's landscape follow. Although they lack the intimacy of the ancestral homeland of the Tamil devotee in Sri Lanka.

September 2004, Cult Archeology: Civilization One Book (excerpt)
Megalithic pint, anyone? Although it is true that peoples had contacts through trade, and therefore the sharing of ideas, however megalithic structures on Malta most likely are not connected to the British Isles and vice versa. Instead Christopher Knight and Alan Butler create a new myth: ”Like the British Isles and Brittany, Malta and Israel have Megalithic structures scattered across them and the Old Testament gives detailed evidence of how the Canaanite rituals were adopted for king-making. The memory of these prehistoric secrets was transmitted by the remnants of the Order of the Knights Templar who took their rituals to Scotland at the beginning of the 14th century.”

 

Case Study 1: Cult Archeology Neo-Paganism

 

 

Neo Paganism

Editor: Like other ideas under discussion on this web site also Neo Paganism’s doctrinal and ritual elements are taken from the most diverse sources.

From Mircea Eliade to Carlos Castaneda

One of the first signs of our fascination with all things 'shamanic' in the second half of the twentieth century, is Mircea Eliade ‘s 1964 “Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy”.

The Truth About Carlos Castaneda

"Increasing speculation, based on mounting evidence, leads me to the conclusion that the five women who left Los Angeles shortly after Carlos' death have committed suicide.

The Myth of the Noble Savage

Daniel Pinchbeck is not the first who might be responsible for a popularization of mind altering substances, in fact and earlier "Noble Savage" popularization of native drugs took place during the second half of the 20th century by Carlos Castaneda.

Reader Comment: The Myth of the Noble Savage

J: When I was running a spiritual type bookstore in a good sized city, Marol Morgan's book Mutant Message Down under was still a self-published book that was doing quite well.

Celts and Druids Speaking

Although for example many South American shamans incorporate elements of Catholicism, astrology, mesmerism, Kardecism, etc. to enhance their power and authority.

From N. Pennick to Celtic/Northern Literature

Nigel Pennick's work and other similar writers today, give the impression of presenting a singular 'truth' about the past, but maybe the more obvious aim of such writers is more concerned with the present than the past, and how the past can be used to empower current ideas.

The Temple of a Nation, Stonehenge

Stonehenge has been a site of political contest. On 25 March 1997, Kevin Carlyon 'illegally' entered the stones of Stonehenge to raise a Union Jack; he stated this was in reaction to the suggestion by archaeologists that Stonehenge was built by migrating people from what is now France 4,500 years ago.

And Who Owns Ancient Remains?

Reburial' has been a central issue for archaeologists and anthropologists in the USA, Australia and elsewhere where the lobbying of indigenous communities for the repatriation and/or reburial of human remains and artefacts held by museums (and other institutions) has met increasing successes.

Neo-Shamanists and Pagans Today

First, the FSS portrays its core-shamanism as 'shamanism' to indigenous people, when it is, as argued, a Western construction - indeed its appeal to 'core' features is reminiscent of Buhner's universalist approach.

 

 

Case Study : Cult Archeology, Atlantis

 

 

Why We Never Found Atlantis

Numerous attempts have been made to rationalise Plato's myth and find a kernal of historical truth in it. Noble attempts to find this reality have been made by amongst others, J.V. Luce (1969) and Peter James (1996). All have failed.

The Atlantis Syndrome P.1

Atlantis started with Plato and in his hands it was never a supercivilization of the sort conjectured by later authors; perhaps in strictly Greek terms it was no civilization at all but rather a fatally luxurious elaboration of an essentially barbarian way of life, for all its inception by a god.

The Atlantis Syndrome P.2

Earlier the Theosophical, and next the Nazi ideology, horribly romantic, has been the most extreme and pernicious expression of the myth of the divinely sanctioned elite to date, and a far cry you might think from ideas of some secret brotherhood of wise old priests struggling to carry the torch of learning and spirituality down all the dark ages of prehistory and history.

The Atlantis Syndrome P.3

The Atlantologists frequently present themselves as hurt and affronted by the rejection - or worse still the indifference - of the professionals. (Their hurt on occasions can take an oddly childish turn, like a schoolboy sulking over a low mark.)  They put the professionals' attitude down to, at best, an unadventurous conformism that blinds them to the insights of the "alternative" camp.

Cuba's Gateway To Atlantis P.1

The search for Atlantis will never end. And not all its searchers will wind up in outer space.

Cuba's Gateway To Atlantis P.2: Cocaine

For Collins the considerable distance between the Sargasso and the Bahamas is accommodated by the suggestion that "in singling out the Sargasso Sea" (which is a huge assumption on Collins' part since there is nothing at all to suggest Plato was talking about the Sargasso) Plato was just trying to indicate the general location of his sunken island.

Gateway to Atlantis P.3: Seven Cities, El Dorado

There follows in Collins Gateway to Atlantis, a detour into pre-Columbus legends of Antilia and the Seven Cities, El Dorado and the like.

Gateway to Atlantis P.4: Urheimat der Arier

In Collins’ Gateway to Atlantis an unusual landscape feature of the region, called the Carolina Bays in the Bahamas, is brought on as possible evidence of some antique commentary impact, rather like the Tunguska event of Siberia.

Cuba's Atlantis

An October 2002 poll among cult archeologists revealed the majority today, believe that if Atlantis is not a fictional account by Plato (as historians and archeologists worldwide claim) it should in the Bahama Banks area.

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