Hitler’s Source P.2

According to Eckart's secretary, Hitler met Eckart in a small Munich pub in the fall of 1919. Rosenberg later recalled meeting Hitler in the company of Eckart in a small pub in the fall of 1919 as well. Hitler already knew of the writings of both Eckart and Rosenberg in the newspaper “Auf gut Deutsch” at the time of their meeting.

Hitler impressed Eckart with his persuasive power and intensity. Eckart and Hitler began meeting with each other regularly. Hitler later dedicated his autobiographical work Mein Kampf in part to that man, one of the best, who devoted his life to the awakening of his, our people, in his meetings and his thoughts and finally in his deeds: Dietrich Eckart.

Eckart wrote of Hausen's translation of the Protocols in a December 1919 article in Auf gut deutsch, "The Midgard Serpent." He asserted that one reads the Protocols "again and again and yet does not get to the end of it since with almost every paragraph one lets the book fall as if paralyzed with unspeakable horror." He claimed that Hausen's translation of the Protocols and the "publicity leaflet" that the "Jewish lodge 'The Wise Men of Zion"' in Imperial Russia that he had referred to in October undoubtedly originated from the same source, demonstrating that "the Russian Jews already knew in advance of the collapse of the Tsarist Empire as well as the German monarchy in 1911 and just as surely already at that time announced Bolshevik chaos with Jewish world domination as background." Eckart cited some sections of Hausen's Protocols translation, noting that these segments "suffice to attest to the authenticity of the entirety.”

In a November 1920 essay in Aufgut deutsch, '"Jewry Ober alles"' (Jewry Above Everything). Eckart demonstrated his belief in the Protocols' authenticity by quoting a passage from them that had not appeared in his earlier article on the Protocols or in the Voelkischer Beobachter, namely that "the world ruler who will take the place of the currently existing governments has the duty to remove such societies even if he has to drown them in their own blood." For Eckart, this assertion represented a legitimate warning of what the peoples of the world would face if they did not take decisive anti Semitic action.

Eckart noted that the "entire Jewish press" had labeled the Protocols a forgery, but he dismissed this as "the usual tactic of the Hebrews. That which one cannot refute, one chalks up as a forgery." Referring to the spread of the Protocols across the world. Eckart argued that despite Jewish protests, "in all peoples, in England, France, Greece. Romania. Poland, Hungary, and so on, the scales are beginning to fall from [people's] eyes: everywhere forces are stirring and engaging in the work of the liberation from humanity's mortal enemy.

While Eckart unequivocally believed in The Protocols of the Elders of Zion as a valid warning for Gentiles around the world, Rosenberg adopted a considerably more skeptical attitude. Konrad Heiden began his 1944 book, Der Führer, with Rosenberg receiving the Protocols from a mysterious stranger in Moscow in 1917, but Michael Hagemeister, a German expert on the Protocols, has stressed that Heiden's undocumented assertion that someone gave Rosenberg a copy of the Protocols in Moscow and that he then brought them to Germany belongs in the "realm of legend."

In his first major work. released early in 1920, Die Spur des Juden im Wandel der Zeiten (The Trail of the Jew through the Ages), he did not refer directly to the Protocols.

When Rosenberg examined the Protocols in his 1923 book. Die Protokolle der Weisen von Zion und diejudische Weltpolitik- (The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and Amish World-Politics), he remained more skeptical than Eckart. He claimed that the famous Zionist author Asher Ginsburg could very well have written the Protocols, but no “conclusive" proof of this existed, so the question of the authorship of the Protocols remained "open." He further noted that there was no "juridicially conclusive proof' for the Protocols either as absolutely genuine or as a forgery. In a manner similar to Hausen, Rosenberg noted that in any case. documents from -ancient times as well as from the most recent past" existed that demonstrated -precisely the same sense" as the Protocols, from "the Talmud to the Frankfurter Zeitung (Frarnkfurt Times) and the Rote Fahne (The Red Flag)." He further asserted that the Protocols stated that which the "Jewish leaders of Bolshevism themselves openly describe as their plan." While he harbored doubts of the Protocols authenticity, Rosenberg internalized what he saw as a profound point of the Protocols, namely -first subversion, then dictatorship."':' The first concrete evidence of Hitler's internalization of information from the Protocols comes in his notes for an August 1921 speech:

starvation as power - (Russia).... Starvation in the service of Jewry[.] 'Wise Men of Zion[.]' Objection 'not every Jew will know this.' What the wise man comprehends intellectually the ordinary one does out of instinct.... Starvation in Russia[:] charitably, 40 million are dying.  Here Hitler used horrible conditions in the Soviet Union to support the veracity of the Protocols. In an oration a few days later, he cited the Protocols as evidence of the age old and continuing Jewish goal of the extraction of rule, no matter through which means."  In a speech on April 20, 1923. his birthday, Hitler stressed that the goal of the Jews was "to extend their invisible state as a supreme dictatorial tyranny  over the entire world," the basic warning contained in the Protocols.  He again picked up the starvation theme in context with the Protocols in an August 1923 oration, asserting that "in the books of the wise men of Zion it is written: 'hunger must wear down the broad masses and drive them spinelessly into our arms! ... In Mein Kampf Hitler asserted that the Protocols demonstrated that "the whole existence of [the Jewish] people is based on a continuous lie."'

The Protocols did provide anti-Semitic arguments that strongly influenced the ideology of the National Socialist movement, going through 33 editions by the time Hitler came to power and becoming the most widely-distributed work in the world after the Bible. The National Socialist regime did not reprint the Protocols after the outbreak of World War II, though, perhaps precisely due to the Protocols' parallels with both brutal National Socialist occupation policies in Eastern Europe and public pacification efforts domestically.

The Knapp Putch

Eckart and Hitler's collaborator Kapp used the specter of Bolshevism to justify the famous putch named after him, by issuing a proclamation "To the German People!," in which he stressed that the Weimar Republic had proved unable to fend off the threat of "devastation and murder through belligerent Bolshevism.

He stressed that Germany faced "external and internal collapse," necessitating "a strong state authority."(1)

Kapp received initial support or his undertaking from voelkisch Bavarian circles, notably from Dietrich Eckhart and his pupil Hitler. Eckart had mobilized his considerable social connections to assist the still little-known Hitler, including tying him in to in to Knapp. (2)

Knapp met with Eckart in Munich in early 1920. (3) Eckart then traveled to Berlin to confer with Kapp in Berlin three weeks before the latter's putsch attempt. Eckart warned Kapp of "Bolshevism" stressing that "the Jews" would use the "easily led masses" to seize power in Germany "as in Russia." To counter this danger, Eckart proposed incarcerating the Jews, at least the most ones, while there was still time. After launching his putsch, Kapp arranged for his Bavarian co-conspirators Eckart and Hitler to be flown up from Munich to Berlin. (4)

In Berlin, Eckart soon despaired of Kapp's chances of leading a successful national revolution. Kapp did not imprison Jews as Eckart had recommended, merely confiscating flour for matzos, which subsequently led Eckart to comment in his newspaper "Auf gut Deutsch, "one does not provoke wild animals, one locks them up." Kapp had refused to consider such a radical policy, and Eckart later asserted that Kapp's "half measures" had ensured his downfall.

The last straw for Eckart came when he witnessed three Jews at Kapp's headquarters.(5) Eckart  had wished to help Kapp's undertaking precisely to combat Jewish influence, and the presence of Jewish representatives in Kapp's vicinity disgusted him.

The Imperial German intervention in the Ukraine, the land "at the extreme," led to significant anti-Semitic ideological transfer from White sources to postwar voelkisch German circles in Berlin and Munich, including the immediate milieu from which the National Socialist Party arose. Most notably, the White officer trio of Fedor Vinberg, Plotr Shabelskii -Bork, and Sergei Tabonitskii, all of whom went on to collaborate with Hitler, carried The Protocols of the Elders of Zion from the Ukraine to Germany and then saw them into the hands of Ludwig Mu1ler von Hausen, voelkisch publicist who published them in German.

While Eckart and Hitler despaired of Kapp's undertaking early on, leading White Russians supported the undertaking more enthusiastically. The "Russian" remnants of the Western Volunteer Army unequivocally supported the Kapp Putsch. These forces under the direction of Biskupskii and Bermondt-Avalov bad long been prepairing to support Kapp's planned takeover of the German state.(6)

One of the White Russians that time, Gregor Schwartz- Bostunich, born in Kiev to a Baltic German father and a mother with the maiden name Bostunich, whas ultimately to rise in the ranks of Heinrich Himmler's SS.(7)

Schwartz- Bostunich had traveled from Imperial Germany to the Russian Empire after the outbreak of War I before acting as what he later described in an SS report as an "agitator."(8 )He preached with fanatical conviction against Bolsheviks, Freemasons, and Jews in e Crimea. Scheubner-Richter later employed Schwartz-Bostunich speaker on behalf of the NSDAP and sent him to hold talks throughout Germany.(9)

Like Schwartz-Bostunich, also Nemirovich-Danchenko went on to collaborate with Scheubner-Richter in the German "Aufbau Vereinigung" and to further the National Socialist cause. Georgil Nemirovich-Danchenko worked as a key anti-Semitic agitator under White regime on  the Crimean Peninsula as the press chief of Vrangel's government.(10)

The mission of Vrangel had been decided upon during a German/White Russian conference in May 1920.(11)

Other members of the delegation included Kommissarov, Pelikan, and Wagner, as well as some Hungarian and Austrian representatives. General Ludendorff and former Latvian Intervention mastermind General Count Rildiger von der Goltz, the latter of whom resided in Budapest under a false name, conducted negotiations with members of the Horthy's government of Hungary on behalf of ScheubnerRichter's delegation. Once in Budapest, the delegates emphasized the pronounced military component of their undertaking as well as the economic one. Horthy approved the mission and its goals, for which Scheubner- Richter expressed his profound thanks. General Berzewicskii, the Chief of the Hungarian armed forces, asserted that he had 70,000 soldiers at his disposal to further the plans to abolish the Paris (signed at the end of WWI) Peace Treaties.(12)

After its successful layover in Budapest, Scheubner- Richter's mission arrived in Belgrade in the middle of July, where Scheubner- Richter also held talks with members of the local White Russian delegation, and next stopovers was, Varna, Bulgaria.

Scheubner-Richter's other colleagues, Rosenberg and Kursell, both of whom collaborated with Dietrich Eckart, Hitler's mentor, served as prominent members of Aufbau.(13)

Rosenberg in fact acted as the primary National Socialist ideologist, Kursell, who officially Joined the National Socialist Party in 1922, worked closely with Scheubner Richter in Aufbau as he had earlier laborated with him during the wartime German occupation of the Baltic region.(14)

Kursell simultaneously played a prominent role in the "Baltic Brotherhood" a mystic/esoteric inclined group.15 And he also served as the vice president of the Munich-branch of the Baltenverband (Baltic League), with a membership of 530 in 1923. 14

Baltenverband leadership oversaw approximately 2,200 members in 1920, described Bolshevism as the "tyranny of a clique consisting mostly of Jewish elements that wishes to prepare a springboard from which to extend its rule over Europe."(15)

Other important White Russian Aufbau members included Fedor Vinberg and Piotr Shabelskii-Bork, who as we have seen in the previous part had collaborated on the newspaper Priyv (The Call) in Berlin. They transferred The Protocols of the Elders of Zion to Ludwig Muller von Hausen for translation into German, and also supported the Kapp Putsch. Vinberg served as a leading Aufbau ideologue, ultimately engaging in lengthy theoretical discussions with Adolf Hitler.

The increasing political collaboration between National Socialists, and White Russians under the guidance of the Aufbau Vereinigung between the Kapp Putsch of 1920 and the Hitler Putsch of 1923 is the missing focus of inquiry in most current books about Hitler rise to power and ideology to date. Aufbau helped to finance the National Socialist rise to prominence, and it coordinated Joint National Socialist/White Russian efforts to topple the Soviet Union and the Weimar Republic through the use of force. And contributed the specific Aufbau ideological contribution to National Socialism, the theme of the "Jewish Bolshevik" treat as a horrific manifestation of a worldwide Jewish conspiracy.

Hitler continued to use White Russians and Ukrainian separatists under Poltavets Ostranitsa, to undermine the Soviet Union. His insistence on winning the Ukraine for Germany led him to divert the German Army away from Moscow in 1941, thereby engendering disastrous military consequences. Moreover, fundamental Aufbau ideas continued to evolve through the period of the National Socialist rise to power helping to inspire the concentration, enslavement, and mass extermination of European Jews as part of the Hitler's National Socialist policy euphemistically referred to as the "Final Solution."

But also General Ludendorff next to Eckart and Aufbau, also contributed significantly "Weltanschauung" and whom we shall focus on in our next two part article tomorrow 20 June, 2003 on SESN.

Ludendorff released a book in 1921, War Leadership and Politics, in which he claimed along the lines of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion that "the supreme government of the Jewish people was working hand in hand with France and England, perhaps it was leading them both." Hitler later stated that Ludendorff's book "clearly pointed out where it was practical to search (for the mistakes of the past and the possibilities for the future] in Germany."(16)
 

1) Kapp. "An das deutsche Volk!" [March 1920], BAK, Nachlass 309. number 7.

2) Rosenberg. "Meine erste Begegnung mit dem Fuhrer," The National Archives. Records of the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories. 1941-45. IZG, No. 454. roll 63, 578. "5LGPOP report from March 9. 1920, GSAPK. Rejwvitur77. title 18 10. number 1. 76. 13c'Letter from Karl Mayr to Kapp from September 24. 1920, GSAPK. Repositur 92, number 8401. 4.

3) 137 Eckart's examination at the A GAI on July 10, 1920. RGVA (TKhIDK).,fond 567. opis 1. delo 2496. 17.

4) Letter from Wilhelm Kiefer to Anneliese Kapp from June 24, 1958. BAK. Nachlass 309. number 20.

5) Eckart. "Kapp," Auf gut Deutsch. April 16, 1920, 4.

6) Hitler, March 29, 1920 report on Kapp Putsch. Saemtliche Aufzeichnungen. 117.

7) AA report to the RUoO from April 23. 1926, RGVA (TKhIDK), fond 772. opis 3. delo 927. 30. 32. 33.

8) RMI report to the RUoO from July 16, 1926. RGVA (TKhIDK), fond 772, opis 3. delo 927. 47, and PDB report to the RUoO from May 28, 1926, RGVA (TKhIDK), fond 772. opis 3. delo 927.40.

9) DB report from July 23. 1920, RGVA (TKhIDK),-fond 7. opis 1. delo 1255. reel 2. 209.

10) Dienstaltersliste der Schutzstaffel der NSDAP (SS-Obersturmbannführer und SS-Sturmbannführer): Stand vorn 1. 04-tober 1944 (Berlin: Reichsdruckerei, 1944). RGVA (TKhIDK). fond 13 72. opis 5. delo 89. 6.

11) Schwartz-Bostunich. SS-Personalakien. SS-OStubaf- IZG. Fa 74. 1. 2.

12) SG report from August 1, 1939, RGVA (TKhIDK), fond 1. opis 14. delo 3242. 2. Letter from Nemirovich-Danchenko to Count lurii Pavlovich from February 7, 1928, RSHA, RGVA (TKhIDK),fond 500. opis 1, delo 452, 28.

13) DB report from July 17, 1920, RGVA (TKhfDK), fond 7. opis 1, deto 1255. reel 3. 220.

14) DB reports from September 9 and October 10. 1920, RGVA (TKhIDK). fond 7, 02. deto 2575. reel 1. 21, 99.

15) 19 Protocol of a Gait Neubrandenburg Baltenverband meeting on October 4, 1920. BA. Reich 8012. number 7. 59: speech of Landrat A. v. Oettingen at Baltenverband meeting on October 15. 1920, BA. Reich 8012. number 2, 128.

16) Thoss. Der Ludendorff-Kreis.p. 8.

 

Introduction: A Russian Connection

In this series of lectures I will discuss a number of early influences on the rise of Hitler and the early Nazi party.

Hitler's Secret "Protocols" P.1
The Protocols of the Wise Elders of Zion,  were not fabricated in Paris, but within Imperial Russia between April 1902 and August 1903. The earliest versions of the Protocols contain pronounced Ukrainian features, whereas later ones were given French overtones in order to lend them the appearance of credible accounts from abroad.

Hitler's Secret "Protocols" P.2
General Vladimir Biskupskil, who went on to collaborate closely with Hitler in the context of the Aufbau Vereinigung in postwar Munich, played a leading role in the Ukrainian Volunteer Army. "Conservative revolutionaries" in Imperial Germany and Russia established detailed anti-Western, anti-Semitic ideologies in the months leading up to the Bolshevik Revolution. The largely internally-orientated voelkisch model focused on alleged Germanic racial and spiritual superiority through a heightened capacity to negate the will heroically, whereas the more externally- fixated Russian version offered apocalyptic visions of concrete political struggle between Russians at the head of all Slavs and perceived Jewish world-conspirators.

 

Hitler’s Source P.1
The Protocols did provide anti-Semitic arguments that strongly influenced the ideology of the National Socialist movement, going through 33 editions by the time Hitler came to power and becoming the most widely-distributed work in the world after the Bible. The National Socialist regime did not reprint the Protocols after the outbreak of World War II, though, perhaps precisely due to the Protocols' parallels with both brutal National Socialist occupation policies in Eastern Europe and public pacification efforts domestically.

Hitler’s Source P.2
Anticipating Tsarist pretender Kirill's arrival in Germany, General Ludendorff worked to establish an intelligence service for Kirill in early April 1922. He asked Walther Nicolai, who had served him as the head of the German Army High Command Intelligence Service during World War one, to use his considerable experience and connections to establish a reliable pro-Kirill intelligence service for the struggle against Bolshevism.

The German Kaiser's Confident P.1
By 1937 the NSDAP, the Wehrmacht, and, to a lesser extent, German society accepted Ludendorffs ideology. In the regime and the Wehrmacht he had tacit allies who helped to legitimize and propagate Deutsche Gotterkenntnis. Those who sympathized with him and his ideology existed at all levels of the Nazi hierarchy. Although today he may be forgotten, and although his memorial shrine in Tutzing may be neglected, Erich Ludendorff was one of the most important Germans of the twentieth century.

The German Kaiser's Confident P.2
The Ludendorffs (now Hohe Warte) advocated a return to traditional rural German culture since they believed that the demands of modem capitalist society had tom the German people from the soil, causing them to forget their heritage and ensuring their submission to finance and industrial capital. The Ludendorffs' ideology paralleled similar intellectual developments among Conservative Revolutionaries.

The Ideologists and First Financiers of Hitler P.1
Before the establishment of the “Aufbau” Vereinigung in late 1920, the collaboration between Eckart and Rosenberg in the context of Eckhart’s Newspaper In Plain German.” Formed the crux of the fusion between voelkisch-redemptive German and White Russian world conspiratonial-apocalyptic anti-Semitic thought, where "positive" notions of Germanic spiritual and racial superiority fused with more negative visions of impending "Jewish Bolshevik" destruction supported by Jewish finance capitalists.

The Ideologists and First Financiers of Hitler P.2
By 1923, Hitler had thoroughly internalized Aufbau’s and the people around it, assertions, of the nature of socialism and its most aggressive variant Bolshevism as mere tools of Jewish finance capitalism to enslave European peoples…

Dietrich Eckart, Rosenberg, and the White Russian Influence on Nazi Ideology, P.1
The ensuing military conflagration, Eckart continued, had led to the destruction of Imperial Russia so that "Jewish Bolshevism" could take root there. He also warned that there would arise "from the Neva to the Rhine, on the bloody ruins of the previous national traditions, a single Jewish empire.

Dietrich Eckart, Rosenberg, and the White Russian Influence on Nazi Ideology, P.2
Hitler in his unpublished 1928 sequel to Mein Kampf, further expounded upon the Aufbau/Eckartian theme of the "Jewish Bolshevik" annihilation of the leading elements of Russian society as a precedent for further Jewish atrocities. He argued that "Jewry exterminated the previous foreign upper strata with the help of Slavic racial instincts."

The "Final" Solution Before WWII, P.1
Hitler continued to express a view of history whereby Jews pitted Germans and Russians against each other after 1923. As witnessed in his unpublished 1928 sequel to Mein Kampf. He argued of "the Jew's" drive to dominate the European peoples that he -methodically agitates for world war" with the aim of "the destruction of inwardly anti-Semitic Russia as well as the destruction of the German Reich. which in administration and the army still offered resistance to the Jew."

The "Final" Solution Before WWII, P.2
That which Jewry once planned against Germany and all peoples of Europe. this must (Jewry) itself suffer today, and responsibility before the history of European culture demands that we do not carry out this fateful separation (Schicksalstrennung) with sentimentality and weakness, but with clear, rational awareness and firm determination.” (Rosenberg 1941 press release dealing with his public assumption of the position of  State Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories.)

Early Nazis and the Mystical Connection P.1
Like the mystical inclined author Sergei Nilus, who had played a crucial role in popularizing The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Vinberg viewed Jews as a satanic force.

Early Nazis and the Mystical Connection P.2
Hitler asserted that "liberalism, our press, the stock market, and Freemasonry" together represented nothing but "Instrument[s] of the Jews."

Early Nazis and the Mystical Connection P.3
By the time of Ludendorfrs death, Deutsche Gotterkenninis had become for Nazis a legitimate Weltanschauung. Ludendorff's vision of a totalitarian society unified in the face of external and internal threats was nearly identical to the Weltanschauung of Nazism.


 
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