By Eric Vandenbroeck and co-workers

How Crypto-Currency Fraud Functions

Fifteen years after Satoshi Nakamoto’s Bitcoin whitepaper, cryptocurrency has exploded from an idea for a single digital asset to a thriving asset class whose global market cap exceeds $1 trillion. Around the world, people of varying backgrounds have embraced crypto, using it for everything from investing to sending remittances to hedging against inflation. Recognizing these trends, governments worldwide are continually passing and refining crypto regulation while traditional financial institutions think about how to incorporate crypto into their product offerings. But despite global adoption and increased regulation, many misconceptions about cryptocurrency persist.

In an earlier overview, we started with Ethereum, whereby Sam Bankman-Fried's seven counts of conspiracy and fraud make for a good starting point.

Less than a week after several liquidity pools on Curve Finance were exploited in a multi-million dollar scheme, the hacker returned 4,820 alETH and 2,258 ETH to Alchemix, worth around $12.7 million. These transactions were accompanied by an encrypted message in which the hacker wrote, “I saw some ridiculous views, so I want to clarify that I’m refunding you not because you can find me, it’s because I don’t want to ruin your project, maybe it’s a lot of money for a lot of people, but not for me, I’m smarter than all of you. . .” NFT lending protocol JPEG also confirmed receipt of most of its stolen funds, worth around $10 million. 

On August 6, 2023, Curve Finance announced on Twitter that the established deadline for the hacker to voluntarily return the remainder of the funds had passed. Thus, the company extended its bounty offer of $1.85 million to anyone able to uncover the hacker’s identity

Investigation reveals more than 150 fake firms are targeting people online, breaking their hearts, and emptying their bank accounts.

Sometimes Crypto fraud goes like this:

A woman meets a man online. They flirt. Then, after a few weeks, they begin imagining a future together. Fast forward a few months, and one has had their heart broken and been defrauded of their life savings.

It sounds like a classic romance scam, but it isn’t. This is “pig butchering”: a brutal, elaborate, and rapidly expanding form of organized crime, often involving criminal syndicates, modern-day slaves, and victims worldwide.

An investigation by the Observer and the Bureau of Investigative Journalism has found that global organised crime gangs are using the UK as a virtual base for their operations – systematically exploiting lax company registration laws to carry out fraud on an industrial scale.

One east London tower block resident has been inundated with letters addressed to businesses and people he has never heard of.

A scam victim who wants to remain anonymous. Many feel ‘stupid’ to have been duped. Photograph: Andy Hall/The Observer

Key to the success of pig-butchering scams is convincing victims that they are using a legitimate trading platform or virtual wallet. To do this, criminal groups set up real companies that they can then refer to on their scam websites, creating a veneer of legitimacy.

A message from a ‘scammer’ who claims they’re a victim of forced labor and being forced to carry out this scam.

Around the world, law enforcement agencies are working harder to tackle cryptocurrency crime. The National Crime Agency is preparing to launch a new unit devoted to tackling the scams. Interpol, which facilitates worldwide police cooperation, recently set up a financial crime and anti-corruption center.

It currently costs as little as £12 and takes a few minutes to register a company online without the need to provide any proof of ID. The government has pledged to tighten the rules, including introducing a requirement to verify information provided to Companies House. However, the second part of the economic crime bill is yet to go before the Lords, and the timeline for its future implementation is unclear.

Within a few years, two brothers from Ohio were imprisoned for cryptocurrency-related crimes. The first, Larry Dean Harmon, was arrested and charged for a money laundering conspiracy from his operation of Helix, a cryptocurrency mixing service operating on the dark web. Shortly after Internal Revenue Service Criminal Investigations (IRS-CI) seized Larry’s Bitcoin wallets, his younger brother, Gary James Harmon, used Larry’s passwords to steal some of the Bitcoin back from the seized wallets. In April 2023, Gary was sentenced to four years in prison for his theft from the government.

In the early stages of the investigation, an undercover FBI agent transferred Bitcoin from an AlphaBay wallet to Helix and confirmed that using the mixer reduced direct traceability to AlphaBay. Then, law enforcement used Chainalysis to identify 16 Bitcoin wallets which contained nearly 5,000 Bitcoin worth of proceeds from Helix’s operation. When law enforcement searched Larry’s residences in Ohio and Belize, they recovered multiple cryptocurrency storage devices linked to these wallets, and also found an accounting spreadsheet in his Google Drive that indicated ownership of more than $56 million worth of Bitcoin and other assets. 

After Larry’s arrest in 2020, Gary was laid off from Coin Ninja and struggled financially. Sensing an opportunity to acquire funds from his brother’s 16 wallets in custody, Gary used Larry’s passwords to access several of them. He transferred 712 Bitcoin (worth more than $5 million at the time) to eight new wallets. We can see those transactions below in Reactor.

Once complete, Gary deposited 68 Bitcoin as collateral for a $1.2 million loan from BlockFi, which he used to purchase a luxury condo in Cleveland, Ohio. He spent at strip clubs and on private jets. The below image shows Gary in a bathtub with cash at a nightclub, which investigators recovered on his phone. Additionally, text messages on the phone suggest he made extravagant purchases around the same time. 

On July 30, 2023, several liquidity pools on Curve Finance were exploited, resulting in approximately $70 million in losses and triggering panic within the DeFi ecosystem. These hacks occurred due to a vulnerability in Vyper, a third-party Pythonic programming language for Ethereum smart contracts used by Curve and other decentralized protocols. Since then, several white hat hackers and MEV bot operators have helped recover some of the funds, which means the actual value lost may end up being lower than the total currently reported. Below, we’ll share what we know so far about the hack.

After news broke of the hacks, CRV declined 5%. This decline, along with the risk that malicious hackers possessing millions’ worth of CRV could sell into the token’s now-illiquid market, triggered fears of contagion effects for some DeFi protocols. In particular, AAVE's lending protocol is at risk of incurring debt due to Egorov’s massive and well-known borrow position secured by CRV token collateral. 

At this time, Curve has not detailed any recovery plans but publicly advised its users to withdraw funds from Vyper-based pools. We have labeled all addresses relevant to the Curve hacks in Chainalysis products and will continue to provide updates on the situation when possible.


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