P.209-215; Finally, we must confront our greatest challenge: it is now time to attempt to make sense of all we have discovered. We must try to reconcile the existence of such miraculous knowledge with everything else that is known about the Neolithic peoples of western Europe and the early dynasties in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
No matter how hard we try, we find it impossible to believe that the Megalithic 366 system and its close 360 relative from Sumer were invented in isolation. There must surely be a connection - and a very direct connection at that. While it is entirely possible that both the Megalithic and Sumerian peoples could have estimated the circumference of the Earth using simple geometry and careful observation, we do not believe that they could have calculated the planet’s mass or accurately assessed the dimensions of the Moon and the Sun.
The available archaeological evidence paints a picture of the Neolithic population of the British Isles as being very primitive, without a written language, metals or any kind of wheel. The pottery left by the Grooved Ware people is very crude and everything we know about these people points to short, hard lives. Despite these undeniable facts, this is the culture that built robust structures, durable enough to have survived more than 5,000 years. The existence of the Megalithic Yard at the sites surveyed by Thom confirms an ability to work to fine tolerances and indicates that the people concerned were aware of the concepts that we label pi and phi today. But how did they arrive at the Megalithic Yard, that fascinating, and to many archaeologists, extremely frustrating unit of 0.8296656 metres? We have described in detail how the individual builder could create a rule of a known length by following a relatively simple procedure and we have explained why this length was seen as so special in terms of the Earth’s polar circumference. The Megalithic Yard can be accurately determined by any artisan with a knowledge of the prescribed technique of observing the turning Earth and swinging a pendulum. It takes no more than an average IQ to learn to reproduce a Megalithic Yard - but what can we deduce about the individuals who originated this unit that so beautifully fits the Earth, the Sun and the Moon?: that when applied to cubes, creates weights and capacities that are part of the modern imperial system. Surely, no Megalithic astronomer cum stonemason knew any of this?
Being as open-minded as it is possible
to be, we cannot believe that the Megalithic builders could have defined the
Megalithic Yard either by accident or design. And yet someone did.
Then there is the kush, the Sumerian/Babylonian unit that does not have any obvious connection to Earth’s dimensions but which does define the second of time and produces astounding decimal/sexagesimal integers when used to describe the speed of light and the speed of the Earth’s motion around the Sun. Again, we simply cannot believe that the Sumerians had any more ‘true’ understanding of the implications of the kush units than an African bushman has regarding the innermost workings of his clockwork radio. So, how did these ancient civilizations come to possess such knowledge?
For all the world it feels as though
both Megalithic Man and the Sumerians shared the same teacher. The sudden
development of brilliant cultures after more than 5,000 generations of humanity
and the absence of any audit trail strongly suggests the intervention of a
third party that is no longer known.
The principle of formal logic known as Occam’s Razor states that ‘entities are not to be multiplied without necessity’. This means that that elaborate solutions should not be created where simple ones will do. And we can think of no simpler solution than to accept that the contemporary records of the first civilizations actually mean exactly what they say!
Unfortunately there are no documentary records of Neolithic traditions - but we know that the Sumerians and Ancient Egyptians specifically stated that a group of people with, what appeared to them to be, god-like powers arrived from somewhere unknown to instruct them in the sciences and teach them skills in manufacturing. These ‘Watchers’ were thought of as gods, but it is said that they looked like normal people and they lived and died just like everyone else. While it is fashionable today to dismiss old myth and legend as little more than fairy stories, we believe that this explanation holds more water than any other.
Is this solution so preposterous that we have to overlook the obvious? Stepping back from the arrogance of the belief that our current civilization simply has to be the pinnacle of all human achievement leaves us wondering, ‘Why on Earth do we have to accuse our forebears of writing down nonsense?’ The first response of any archaeologist to this thesis will be, ‘So where is the archaeological evidence to support the notion of such a group of advanced people?’ This is an entirely fair and reasonable question but our answer lies in information that we have brought forward from our forensic examination of measurement systems. The evidence outlined in this book appears to have demolished the standard idea that there was a slow, incremental improvement of humankind’s understanding of science and nature from Stone Age to Internet Age. Like Charles Dickens’ Mr Gradgrind, we love facts, and we set out to find more facts than had previously been available. The whole idea of a ‘Civilization One’ is not going to appeal to many academics - and we fully understand why. This kind of notion has to be treated with great caution. Yet it does explain how these fantastically sophisticated units existed in cultures that were otherwise rather unsophisticated.
Could it be that there was once a single, highly-advanced group that virtually kick-started the world’s first civilizations? If so, it appears that it failed in the case of the Megalithic culture because it seems to have died out. And yet in a way it never will, as long as any person on the planet orders a pound of apples or downs a pint of beer.
Others may identify a different
solution, but in our estimation it would be impossible to create this
interrelated Megalithic/ Mesopotamian measurement matrix from a cold start. In
other words, the Earth, Moon and Sun as well as the speed of light and the
orbiting Earth would have to be measured using some arbitrary units before it
would be possible to create units that produced such wonderful integer results.
If we are correct regarding this point, the inference has to be that
Civilization One was as advanced as the modern world, though far, far back in
time during the period we refer to as prehistoric.
Another important point to consider is the way that the numbers we have found work. Everything about the Megalithic system hinges on the value of 366 and the Sumerian/Babylonian system works on their sexagesimal principle. But there are many instances where the integers fall out in decimal terms.
We are well aware that some people will say that we have found meaning because we have seen big round numbers in base 10. They might argue that despite the bizarre ‘coincidence’ of all three solar system objects producing these results when using ancient measures, all numbers are equally valid and that they would not look anything special if we used another base. The number 100, for example, would read as 144 in base 8. This point is valid - but our whole argument is that some human beings in the very distant past realized that the Earth was precisely 3.66 times larger than the Moon and that the Sun was 400 times larger. Having 10 digits on their hands they had naturally worked in base 10 and saw the relationship as follows: Moon - 100 Earth - 366 Sun - 40,000
Having observed and understood this remarkable relationship these people also recognized that the value 366 was important to the Earth because that was the number of rotations it had on its axis in the course of one solar orbit. And a 366th part of the day was the difference between the solar and sidereal day. Furthermore, there was a reciprocal relationship because the Earth had 10,000 days to 366 lunar days. Having digested these facts it is little wonder that these early astronomers considered the Earth to be a 366 phenomenon and then proceeded to work out a unit of measure that unified this knowledge.
But these people, whoever they were,
also understood the mass of the Earth in great detail and realized that the
‘366ness’ of our planet goes even deeper. They used a pendulum to beat 366
times during Venus’ movement across a 366th part of the horizon, and produced a
pendulum length that corresponded precisely to the units that describe the
circumferences of the Earth, Moon and Sun. This surely verges on the magical.
Everything here must be the result of some very smart calculations by the surveyors from Civilization One. Equally, the Sumerian decimal/ sexagesimal results for the speed of light and the orbiting Earth could have been carefully and deliberately calculated. Nevertheless, no matter how bright the theoretical scientists of Civilization One might have been, there are some issues arising here that transcend any human power.
The speed of light is believed to be a fixed phenomenon and anyone clever enough can certainly use it to define multiple integer length against time. But no-one can have influenced the speed of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun - it is what it is. So, the following has to be a coincidence: Earth’s orbital speed = one 10,000th of the speed of light Furthermore, using NASA data, we found that the diameter of our planet’s motion around the Sun is almost exactly 600 x 106 kush per Sumerian second. This is a perfect Sumerian sexagesimal number yet again and it means that light travels across the disc of the Earth’s orbit in a strangely neat 1,000 seconds.
Factors like these must be coincidences - they are all such human numbers, as though the very ‘blueprint’ of our solar system was saying, ‘Recognize that all this has been designed for you 10-fingered humans.’
Under any normal circumstances these kinds of fit would not be dismissed as a coincidence. But here the conclusion may be too unsettling for many because, if they are not random, then maybe our work does not really concern archaeologists at all. Add these observations to the other well-known improbability of the Moon’s very existence and perhaps we should be speaking to a scientifically-minded theologian! The consequences of these truths have certainly shaken our previously rather agnostic worldview.
We have discounted the idea that the Neolithic inhabitants of western Europe could have created the so-called Megalithic system or that the Sumerians could have devised the kush/second system. It has been necessary to assume that a highly-developed civilization must have existed in prehistory - just as the world’s oldest history books state. But how clever is it possible for any human to be?
We have agonized over this for many months. We are not religious people and we know that to invoke a deity is normally a lazy ‘cop out’ - a way of ignoring a problem by sticking a ‘God’ label on anything we cannot explain. While neither of us would ever have denied the possible existence of a creative force that permeates the universe, turning chaos into order, we would never previously have seen any basis for anything approaching a deliberate plan. Now we are a great deal less sure. Maybe everything we have found can be explained in terms of physics - but that would not change anything. Freemasons use the term ‘Great Architect of the Universe’ and ‘Grand Geometrician of the Universe’ so that people of all religions can come together without having to fall out about the mythical name. These masonic designations appear to be particularly appropriate.
We have resisted the idea for as long as we can but we have had to concede that it does look as though our place in universe has been designed, and that the designer has laid down some very deliberate clues so that we will recognize the plan. Such thoughts amount to a form of ‘blasphemy’ to the atheist, whose worldview requires absolute, cold rationality. But what happens to the ultra-pragmatist when the evidence suddenly points the other way?’
Consider this: if the ‘Great Architect of the Universe’ had a special place for mankind - as most world religions believe - and that Architect wanted to reveal their actions to a 10-fingered creature, they would surely communicate in base 10.
That would be a way of saying, ‘Pay attention - I’m talking to you’. When the chosen species had developed sufficiently it would begin to understand its environment and measure it using units derived from the Architect’s chosen order and counted in base 10. These ‘chosen ones’ would realize that the message was timed, because the Moon has not always been one four-hundredth of the distance between the Earth and the Sun, although it has always been one four-hundredth the size of the Sun. It would dawn on them that the Earth orbits the Sun at one-tenth the speed of light and that the circle of the orbit takes 100 seconds for light to traverse it.
We can hear the grinding of scientific teeth as we dare to print these observations and that is excusable, if not reasonable. But we are equally sure that some who hold firm religious convictions will be outraged by these notions. They will still want to believe in the ancient myths, but for them the Creator’s direct involvement in human matters only happened in some distant past when Moses, Gautama Buddha, Zoroaster, Jesus Christ or Muhammad walked the Earth.
It seems to us that there must have been a Civilization One; an advanced people who trained the rest of the world in science and technology, thereby leading it out of the Stone Age. But surely these forgotten people understood the message that was calling to them from the very fabric of nature. The people that are spoken of in ancient records taught the world about God and the great plan of nature. But the message became jumbled and almost lost as modern humankind began to believe in its own importance as the pinnacle of all intellectual achievement. Perhaps fortunately, the essence of the message has never been totally lost. By some mechanism, units such as the pound and the pint live on, and the giant stones of the Megalithic builders stood sufficiently upright to be read by at least one engineer with the genius to unravel their hidden secret. (Narumol S: Meaning you have to buy their next, book, to find out what the authors interpretation of this is.) A postscript by Christopher Knight further states:
At some point, probably well before 2000 BC, cultures in the Mediterranean adopted the principles of the geometry used by the Megalithic builders of the British Isles. This knowledge extended from Malta to Crete and the city states of Phoenicia on the coast that we now know as Israel and the Lebanon. The Minoan culture adapted the principles to create their own unit based on this 366 geometry and the Phoenician knowledge passed to another Canaanite group of tribes, later knows as Jews, from the principal tribe of Judah.
Like the British Isles and Brittany, Malta and Israel have Megalithic structures scattered across them and the Old Testament gives detailed evidence of how the Canaanite rituals were adopted for king-making. In the Jewish state they were also associated with the ritualized slaughter of royal children to ensure God’s support for their reign, which apparently was allowed to run for just 40 years. This 40-year period mentioned throughout the Bible was unquestionably linked to the study of the cycle of Venus, which is so reliable that it forms a perfect calendar and clock.
The memory of these prehistoric secrets was transmitted by the remnants of the Order of the Knights Templar who took their rituals to Scotland at the beginning of the 14th century when their luck had run out and they were on the run from King Philip of France and Pope Clement V. This was one of the few safe places on the planet because the king of the Scots, Robert the Bruce, had, recently been excommunicated from the Church.
As hereditary Grand Master Masons of Scotland, the once dominant St. Clair family had nurtured this ancient knowledge until such time as it was safe to create a new order that we know today as Freemasonry. The opportunity came in 1601 when a Scottish Freemason (James VI of Scotland) became King James I of England, but a little over a century later Freemasonry had to hide itself in London as war had broken out with the Jacobites of Scotland.
In 1715 a Jacobite army marched deep
into England and English Freemasons began to walk away from their lodges
(meeting places) for fear of being taken as supporters of the enemy. Two years
later a small group of London lodge’s joined forces to try to save the Order
from imminent extinction. They did so by forming a new Grand Lodge and by
denying all knowledge of where Freemasonry had come from. This mass amnesia
worked and Freemasonry began to grow into a major international organization
with the United Grand Lodge of England still claiming original authority.